In 2001, 46% of the engineering doctorate degrees went to U.S. citizens. Yet few awards were received by members of underrepresented ethnic groups. In fact, the inclusion of underrepresented ethnic groups and women in engineering has always been severely disparate at the doctorate degree level with little growth. This figure normalizes each demographic group with respect to their demographic equivalent.
- Gibbons, Michael T. "The Year in Numbers" ASEE Profiles of Engineering and Technology Colleges, 2004 Edition, American Society for Engineering Education. For more information, visit the ASEE web site.
- Reichert, M. and M. Absher, “Graduate Engineering Education of Underrepresented Populations”, J. Engineering Education, pp. 257-267 (1998).
- National Science Foundation, “Women, Minorities, and Persons with Disabilities in Science and Engineering 2000”,NSF, (Arlington, VA 2000).
- National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Studies, “Science and Engineering Degrees, by Race/Ethnicity of Recipients: 1990-98”, NSF 01-327, Author, Susan T. Hill (Arlington, VA 2001).
- U.S. Department of Commerce, Economics and Statistics Administration, Bureau of the Census, 1990 Census Data.